Description: Short 6-page peer-reviewed article describing how to recognize multiple testing problems in clinical research.
Link: Article pdf
Who created this resource: Kristin Sainani, PhD, Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at Stanford University (Stanford CA).
What does this resource offer: This article describes what multiple testing is and illustrates the problem with multiple testing using clinical examples. The authors identify and provide examples of common sources of multiple testing in clinical research settings. The distinction between hypothesis-driven analyses and exploratory analyses and the impact of multiple testing in these settings is highlighted. Guidance is provided on how to assess and interpret research findings in consideration of Type I error rate inflation from multiple testing. Citation: Sainani, KL. 2009. The problem of multiple testing. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1: 1098.